Difference between revisions of "Robin Hood Street Close (Outwood)"

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__NOTOC__{{PnItemTop|Lat=53.7069|Lon=-1.5200|AdmDiv=Yorkshire|Vicinity=W side of Potovens Lane, N and S of A650, slightly N of Wrenthorpe|Type=Area|Interest=Robin Hood name|Status=Defunct|Demonym=|Riding=West|GreaterLondon=|Year=1651|Aka=Robinhoodstreteclose; Robin Hood Street close; Robinhood Close; Robin Hood Close|Century=|Cluster1=Outwood|Cluster2=|Cluster3=|Image=geograph-3565806-by-Betty-Longbottom.jpg|Postcards=|ExtraCat1=|ExtraCat2=|ExtraCat3=|ExtraCat4=|ExtraCat5=|GeopointPrefix=|GeopointSuffix=|StatusSuffix=|DatePrefix=|DateSuffix=)}}
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__NOTOC__{{PlaceNamesItemTop|Lat=53.705332|Lon=-1.519215|AdministrativeDivision=Yorkshire|Vicinity=E side of Potovens Lane, N and S of A650, slightly N of Wrenthorpe|Type=Area|Interest=Robin Hood name|Status=Defunct|Demonym=|Riding=West|GreaterLondon=|Year=1651|Aka=Robinhoodstreteclose; Robin Hood Street close; Robin Hood Close|Century=|Cluster1=Outwood|Cluster2=|Cluster3=|Image=Robin-hood-street-close-outwood-google-earth-street-view.jpg|Postcards=|ExtraCat1=|ExtraCat2=|ExtraCat3=|ExtraCat4=|ExtraCat5=|GeopointPrefix=Near |GeopointSuffix= ?|StatusSuffix=|DatePrefix=|DateSuffix=}}
{{#display_map:{{#var:Coords}}~{{#replace:{{PAGENAME}}|&#39;|'}}|width=34%|service=leaflet|enablefullscreen=yes}}<div class="pnMapLegend">(?The former) Robin Hood Close.</div>
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{{#display_map:{{#var:Coords}}~{{#replace:{{PAGENAME}}|&#39;|'}};53.7061,-1.5185~Robin Hood House;53.7078,-1.5086~Outwood Hall;53.6970,-1.5150~Snow Hill|polygons=53.712691,-1.508910:53.710515,-1.507003:53.708700,-1.503245:53.706383,-1.505333:53.694442,-1.504172:53.696908,-1.516492:53.698221,-1.525130:53.709785,-1.515973~Robin Hood closes~The Robin Hood closes were probably within this area~green~1~2|width=34%|enablefullscreen=yes}}<div class="pnMapLegend">Robin Hood Street Close would have been in this neighbourhood.</div>
[[File:{{#var:Pnimage}}|thumb|right|500px|Mount Avenue; this area was once part of Robin Hood Street Close / [https://m.geograph.org.uk/photo/3565806 Betty Longbottom, 22 July 2013, Creative Commons, via Geograph.]]]
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[[File:{{#var:Image}}|thumb|right|500px|Looking roughly north on Potovens Lane; Robin Hood Street Close would have been somewhere east or south-east of this spot / Google Earth Street View.]]
[[File:Robin-hood-street-close-outwood-NLS.jpg|thumb|right|500px|Approximate indication in dark gray of the area formerly known as Robin Hood (Street) Close / [https://maps.nls.uk/view/102345004#zoom=6&lat=2353&lon=6978&layers=BT 6" O.S. map ''Yorkshire'' 233 (1854; surveyed 1848&ndash;51)] &ndash; Reproduced with the permission of the [https://maps.nls.uk/index.html National Library of Scotland.]]]
 
 
<div class="no-img">
 
<div class="no-img">
 
<p id="byline">By Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2020-08-15. Revised by {{#realname:{{REVISIONUSER}}}}, {{REVISIONYEAR}}-{{REVISIONMONTH}}-{{REVISIONDAY2}}.</p>
 
<p id="byline">By Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2020-08-15. Revised by {{#realname:{{REVISIONUSER}}}}, {{REVISIONYEAR}}-{{REVISIONMONTH}}-{{REVISIONDAY2}}.</p>
'Robinhoodstreteclose' figures in the records as early as 1651. It can almost certainly be identified with a Robin Hood Close listed in the tithe award for Stanley and Wrenthorpe (1845).
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'Robinhoodstreteclose' figures in the records as early as 1651. It must have been situated somwhere on the east side of Potovens or Wrenthorpe Lane.
  
A. H. Smith treats the mention of this in the court roll of the manor of Wakefield for 1651 as the earliest reference to a locality known in 1657 and later as [[Robin Hood Hill (Outwood)|Robin Hood Hill]].<ref>{{:Smith, Albert Hugh 1961a}}, pt. II, p. 158, where the date is cited as 1650.</ref> However, this is not strictly correct, for rather than referring to the entire hill, Robin Hood (Street) Close must have been the name of a close on the north side of Potovens Lane, a street crossing Robin Hood's Hill in an area about equidistant from Wrenthorpe, Carr Gate and Outwood. The lane was previously known as [[Robin Hood Hill Lane (Outwood)|Robin Hood Hill Lane]]. On Robin Hood Hill, just across from Robin Hood (Street) Close was formerly found [[Robin Hood House (Outwood)|Robin Hood House]], while at the north end of the hill, [[Robin Hood Bridge (Outwood)|Robin Hood Bridge]] takes Potovens Lane over the line of the former West Yorkshire Railway, now the Doncaster and Leeds Line.
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A. H. Smith treats the mention of this in the court roll of the Manor of Wakefield for 1651 as the earliest reference to a locality known in 1657 and later as [[Robin Hood Hill (Outwood)|Robin Hood Hill]] (see Records below).<ref>{{:Smith, Albert Hugh 1961a}}, pt. II, p. 158, where the date is cited as 1650.</ref> However, rather than referring to the entire hill, the name probably referred to a close on the east side side of Potovens Lane, a street crossing Robin Hood's Hill in an area about equidistant from Wrenthorpe, Carr Gate and Outwood. This stretch of the lane was previously known as [[Robin Hood Hill Lane (Outwood)|Robin Hood Hill Lane]]. On the east side of it formerly stood [[Robin Hood House (Outwood)|Robin Hood House]], while at the north end of the hill, [[Robin Hood Bridge (Outwood)|Robin Hood Bridge]] still takes Potovens Lane over the line of the former West Yorkshire Railway, which is now the Doncaster and Leeds Line. In 1790-91, a couple of generations before the railway came, several fields on the east side of Robin Hood Hill were named after Robin Hood or had been so within living memory:  
 
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* [[Lower Robin Hood Close (Outwood) (1)]]
The tithe award for Stanley and Wrenthorpe (1845) includes three contiguous plots, all occupied by a John Marshland:
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* [[Lower Robin Hood Close (Outwood) (2)]]
* Robin Hood Close, owned by the Vicar of Wakefield, state of cultivation: Pasture; area: 3 acres, 3 roods and 37 perches ({{AcreRoodPerchToM2|3|3|37}} m<sup>2</sup>)
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* [[Robin Hood Far Stile Close (Outwood)]]
* Robin Hood Close, owned by the Vicar of Wakefield, state of cultivation: Meadow; area: 1 acre and 6 perches ({{AcreRoodPerchToM2|1|0|6}} m<sup>2</sup>)
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* [[Robin Hood Near Stile Close (Outwood)]]
* Robinhood Close, owned by Edward Hemingway, state of cultivation: Arable; area: 3 acre, 3 roods and 29 perches ({{AcreRoodPerchToM2|3|3|29}} m<sup>2</sup>).<ref>1845 tithe award for Stanley cum Wrenthorpe, online at the [https://www.thegenealogist.com Genealogist], piece 43, sub-piece 374, image 025 (items #146 and #160), image 041 (item #147) (subscription required); accompanying map, online at the [https://www.thegenealogist.com Genealogist], piece 43, sub-piece 374, sub-image 001 (subscription required).</ref>
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* [[Upper Robin Hood Close (Outwood)]].  
  
<p style="margin-top:15px;">While there is no proof this Robin Hood Close is identical with Robin Hood Street Close, this may well be the case. The location of Robin Hood Close (1845) can be established from the tithe map, and it is quite in keeping with that given in more general terms in 1651 for Robin Hood Street Close: 'near the Outwoodside of Wakefeld' (see Records below). Moreover, as we know, Robin Hood-themed place-names tend to occur in clusters and Robin Hood Close (1845) was situated at [[Robin Hood Hill (Outwood)|Robin Hood Hill]], which is recorded as early as 1657. This context provides a clue to the origin of the form 'Robin Hood Street Close'. Most probably the stretch of road across [[Robin Hood Hill (Outwood)|Robin Hood Hill]], now known as Potovens Lane and previously as [[Robin Hood Hill Lane (Outwood)|Robin Hood Hill Lane]], was known as 'Robin Hood Street' in the mid-16th century, and 'Robin Hood Street Close' was then the close beside that street. See further the section 'Five Robin Hood Closes' below.</p>
 
  
<p>The court rolls of the manor of Wakefield, which include several entries relating to Robin Hood Street Close, also include {{#ask:[[Category:Robin Hoods in Wakefield Manor Court Rolls]]|format=count}} records relating to Robert Hoods holding land, as villeins or otherwise in the years 1307 to 1350, within the large area of the West Riding of Yorkshire that belonged to the manor. These include men of that name in Stanley, Newton and Alverthorpe. It is conceivable that the close and/or hill was named after one of these men or a descendant of some of them. After the mid-14th century they seem to disappear from the record, but very many later rolls are yet to be edited or calendared and published, so slightly more recent R. Hoods may yet be found.</p>
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Back in the mid-17th century [[Robin Hood Street Close (Outwood)|Robin Hood Street Close]] was found there. In order to avoid nedless repetition across several pages, all these are discussed together here.
  
=== Five Robin Hood Closes ===
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None of the closes on the east side of Potovens Lane can be pinpointed on the map, but they all lay on land belonging to the Manor of Wakefield, for they are all referred to in the Wakefield Manor Court Rolls. Since no tithes must be paid for them, they are not listed in the tithe award for Stanley cum Wrenthorpe (1845), but very helpfully they are included on the accompanying tithe map where, unlike those included in the tithe award, they are shown without a number referring to the corresponding schedule entry. The fact that 'numberless' fields and closes can potentially be identified as belonging to the manor tells us, together with the identity of the owner of the lands and a couple of references to identifiable localities in the court roll entries from 1790-91, in which neighbourhood the Robin Hood closes must have been located.
Each of the four records dating from 1790-91 which are included in the Records section below refers to five closes in Outwood with Robin Hood-themed names. Each field name/locality has its own page at IRHB:
 
  
* [[Robin Hood Near Stile Close (Outwood)]]
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== Lands of Outwood Hall ==
* [[Robin Hood Far Stile Close (Outwood)]]
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The records dating from 1790-91 (see Records below) are concerned with lands occupied by Joseph Armytage of 'the Lodge', the first group of properties being a 'capital mess[uage] at the Outwood Side called the Lodge', group vi a messuage situated 'near the Lodge, adjoining Brag Lane'. A web page on the history of Outwood Hall tells us that it was known in the 18th and 19th centuries as Woodside Lodge or 'the Lodge' ''tout court''.<ref>[https://outwoodcommunityvideo.co.uk/the-story-of-outwood-hall.html Outwood Community Video: The Story of Outwood Hall.]</ref> On 6" O.S. map ''Yorkshire'' 233 (1854) (see Maps below), only the part of Potovens Lane north of Bradford Road is known under that name, its name south of that road and as far south as Wrenthorpe being then named Brag Lane. The map also reveals that at the time the neighbourhood immediately south of Bradford Road and west of Brag Lane (Potovens Lane in modern terms) was known as Brag Lane End, a name which remained in use for a few decades but then disappeared from the maps. 25" O.S. map ''Yorkshire'' CCXXXIII.14 (1907) (see Maps below) includes the site of the Brag Lane Pit some 40 m NE of the present Potovens Lane/Bradford Road intersection, which suggests that the name Brag Lane may formerly have applied also to at least a stretch of Potovens Lane north of this interesction. Property group xi mentions Snow Hill, which is/was located near Red Hall Lane, south of Wrenthorpe. Modern residential streets in the vicinity are named Snow Hill Close and Rise. If this information is paired with what we can glean from the tithe award for Stanley cum Wrenthorpe it becomes clear that the Robin Hood closes must have been situated within an area bounded (approximately) on the north by Ledger Lane, on the east by Leeds Road (A61) as far south as the Bar Lane intersection, on the south by a line from the latter point to Wrenthorpe, on the west by Wrenthorpe Road and Potovens Lane to the interesction of the latter and Ledger Lane.  
* [[Upper Robin Hood Close (Outwood)]]
 
* [[Lower Robin Hood Close (Outwood) (1)]]
 
* [[Lower Robin Hood Close (Outwood) (2)]].
 
  
<p style="margin-top:20px;">The last but one was said in 1790-91 to have been formerly known as Lower Robin Hood Close, while the last was then currently so called. It is possible that the first two were located near Robin Hood (Street) Close, while the last three were identical with the three parts of it later listed in the tithe award (1845). Since the vicar of Wakefield is listed as the owner of the three plots in the latter, identifying them with plots belonging to the manor or Wakefield in 1790-91 of course requires the assumption that he had acquired them from the manor by 1845. Perhaps some or other of the as yet unpublished court rolls from this period will yield proof of this. In the meantime, a look at the salient parts of the text of these records – it is identical in the three earliest of them and hardly differs in the latest one – will suggest that these five Robin Hood Closes covered much the same ground as Robin Hood (Street) Close.</p>
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Here, in slightly condensed form, is the information given for the 15 property groups, with the estimated areas converted to m<sup>2</sup> and rounded:
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<ol type="i">
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<li>Capital messuage at the Outwood Side called the ''Lodge'', with barns, stables, dovecote, granary, outbuildings, gardens, orchard, foldstead and appurtenances, and a nearby or adjoining close of meadow or pasture, formerly a single close called ''Ox Close'', now divided into 5 closes: ''Ox Close'', ''Ponds Close'', ''Calf Croft'', the ''Paddock'' and ''Willans Close'' (estim. 36400 m<sup>2</sup>).</li>
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<li>Two closes, formerly called ''Eddish'' (variant form: ''Eddige'') ''Close'' and ''Calf Croft'', now part of ''Ox Close'' and called the ''Park'' (estim. 64750 m<sup>2</sup>, incl. gardens and orchard)</li>
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<li>3 closes of meadow or pasture called ''Great Ing'' and ''Upper'' and ''Lower Walton Close'' (estim. 52600 m<sup>2</sup>); similar close or parcel of meadow or pasture formerly called '''Robin Hood Near Stile Close''', now part of ''Upper Walton Close'' and called ''Waterhouse Close''</li>
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<li>1 close or parcel of arable, meadow or pasture called '''Robin Hood Farr Stile Close'''</li>
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<li>1 close of meadow or pasture called '''Upper Robin Hood Close'''</li>
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<li>1 messuage near the Lodge, adjoining Brag Lane, with outbuildings, croft, appurtenances and closes or parcels of meadow or pasture called ''Laith Close'' (formerly ''Robtree Royd''), ''Square Close'' (formerly ''Robin Royd''), and ''Seel Close'' (formerly '''Lower Robin Hood Close''')</li>
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<li>4 closes of meadow or pasture called ''Savile Close'' (formerly ''Pasture Close'' or ''Great Pasture''), ''Boardman Close'' and ''Near'' and ''Far Beckett Close''</li>
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<li>1 close called ''Long Tongue'' (estim. area 8000 m<sup>2</sup>), ''Kelshaw Close'' (formerly ''Green Close''), ''Lower Ing'', now part of ''Bottom of Ox Close''</li>
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<li>1 close of meadow or pasture called ''Little'' or ''Middle Field'' (estim. 12150 m<sup>2</sup>). The several closes above all lie together or adjoining each other</li>
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<li>1 parcel of land called ''Butler Car'' (estim. 4000 m<sup>2</sup>) in or near ''Ouchthorpe'' in ''Stanley''</li>
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<li>1 messuage called ''Cutt Yard House'' with adjoining close or parcel of land now used as a garden or orchard (estim. 1000 m<sup>2</sup>), near ''Snow Hill''</li>
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<li>1 close or parcel of arable, meadow or pasture called '''Lower Robin Hood Close''', formerly in 2 closes called the ''Flagg Closes'' lately called ''Cow Close'' (estim. 8 acres), adjoining the 3 closes in item vi above.</li>
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<li>1 close called ''Cobler Close'' formerly ''Square Close'' (estim. 16200 m<sup>2</sup>), lying between ''Boardman Close'' and ''Savile Close''</li>
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<li>1 close or parcel of land called the ''Three Nooked Close'' (estim. 16200 m<sup>2</sup>), adjoining ''Boardman Close'', ''Far'' and ''Near Beckett Close'' and ''Little Field''</li>
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<li>All other messuages, cottages, lands, hereditaments, premises and appurtenances in the Manor of Joseph Armytage, esq, of the ''Lodge''.</li></ol>
  
The street name 'Brag Lane' and the place- or field name 'Snow Hill' tell us that the records are concerned with land in the Outwood area. On the 6" O.S. map ''Yorkshire'' 233 (1854), only the part of Potovens Lane north of Bradford Road is known under that name, its name south of that road being then Brag Lane. The map also reveals that at the time the neighbourhood immediately south of Bradford Road and west of Brag Lane (Potovens Lane in modern terms) was known as Brag Lane End. This name remained in use for a few decades, but then disappears from the maps. Snow Hill is found centre-foot on the 1854 map referred to above, south of Red Hall Lane and in the north-western corner of the intersection of Wrenthorpe Road, Bradford Road and Red Hall Lane. Modern residential streets in the vicinity are named Snow Hill Close and Rise. This is close to Alverthorpe. The listing of the sixth group of plots  in the records is very helpful. It concerns a
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It is clear from item vi that Lower Robin Hood Close must have been situated not very far from the hall and so near the north end of the area, but I do not believe it is possible to determine the location of this or any of the other Robin Hood closes on the basis of the information at hand. All that can be said is that they must have been in the area indicated on the interactive map shown on this page. In order to have the Robin Hood closes included on IRHB's maps, hey have been given different coordinates slightly east of Potovens Lane. [[Robin Hood House (Outwood)]] was located in the north-western corner of the area, so it may have been situated in one or other of the former Robin Hood Closes. The Robin Hood Close mentioned in the 1665 record may well be indetical with one of the closes mentioned in 1790-91, but again it does not seem possible to determine which (if any) of them. Perhaps some local history buff will be able to tell us where they were in fact located?
<div class="plainquote">mess near the Lodge, adjoining Brag Lane, with outbuildings, croft, appurts and closes or parcels of meadow or pasture called Laith Close formerly Robtree Royd, Square Close formerly Robin Royd, and Seel Close formerly Lower Robin Hood Close</div>
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{{PlaceNamesItemAllusionsAndRecords}}
As is generally the case with the field names included in these records, the more distinctive of those found in this passage do not recur in the tithe award drawn up about half a century later. What instead helps us is the information that the messuage was situated 'near the Lodge, adjoining Brag Lane', for according to Wakefield local history buffs 'Woodside Lodge', or simply 'the Lodge', was then the current name of Outwood Hall.<ref>[https://outwoodcommunityvideo.co.uk/the-story-of-outwood-hall.html Outwood Community Video: The Story of Outwood Hall.]</ref> This shows that the quondam Lower Robin Hood Close must have been situated in the near vicinity of Robin Hood (Street) Close. While it is possible that a careful study of the tithe award and map might reveal more precisely the location of some of these closes, it must be said that very few of the older field-names were still extant in 1845. Perhaps a local hiotorian with access to teh enclosure award and map might be able to help.{{PnItemQry}}
 
  
 
== Gazetteers ==
 
== Gazetteers ==
* {{:Dobson, Richard Barrie 1976a}}, p. 309, s.n. "Robin Hood Hill".
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* Not included in {{:Dobson, Richard Barrie 1976a}}, pp. 293-311.
 
 
== MS sources ==
 
* 1845 tithe award for Stanley cum Wrenthorpe, online at the [https://www.thegenealogist.com Genealogist], piece 43, sub-piece 374, image 025 (items #146 and #160), image 041 (item #147)  (subscription required)
 
* accompanying map, online at the [https://www.thegenealogist.com Genealogist], piece 43, sub-piece 374, sub-image 001 (subscription required).
 
  
 
== Printed sources ==
 
== Printed sources ==
Line 58: Line 63:
  
 
== Background ==
 
== Background ==
* 1845 tithe award for Alverthorpe, online at the [https://www.thegenealogist.com Genealogist], piece 43, sub-piece 012, images 454-98 (subscription required)
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* 1845 tithe map of Stanley cum Wrenthorpe, online at the [https://www.thegenealogist.com Genealogist], piece 43, sub-piece 374, sub-image 001 (£).
* accompanying map, online at the [https://www.thegenealogist.com Genealogist], piece 43, sub-piece 012, sub-image 001 (subscription required)
 
 
* [https://outwoodcommunityvideo.co.uk/the-story-of-outwood-hall.html Outwood Community Video: The Story of Outwood Hall.]
 
* [https://outwoodcommunityvideo.co.uk/the-story-of-outwood-hall.html Outwood Community Video: The Story of Outwood Hall.]
{{PnItemAlsoSee}}
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{{PlaceNamesItemAlsoSee}}
  
 
== Notes ==
 
== Notes ==
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</div>
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</div><!--
{{ImgGalleryIntro}}
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{{ImageGalleryIntroduction}}
 
<gallery widths="195px">
 
<gallery widths="195px">
geograph-3565806-by-Betty-Longbottom.jpg|Mount Avenue; this area was once part of Robin Hood Street Close / [https://m.geograph.org.uk/photo/3565806 Betty Longbottom, 22 July 2013, Creative Commons, via Geograph.]
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</gallery>-->
Robin-hood-street-close-outwood-NLS.jpg|Approximate indication in dark gray of the area formerly known as Robin Hood (Street) Close / [https://maps.nls.uk/view/102345004#zoom=6&lat=2353&lon=6978&layers=BT 6" O.S. map ''Yorkshire'' 233 (1854; surveyed 1848&ndash;51)] &ndash; Reproduced with the permission of the [https://maps.nls.uk/index.html National Library of Scotland.]
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{{PlaceNamesItemNavigation}}
</gallery>
 
{{PnItemNav}}
 

Latest revision as of 23:59, 11 February 2021

Locality
Coordinate Near 53.705332, -1.519215 ?
Adm. div. West Riding of Yorkshire
Vicinity E side of Potovens Lane, N and S of A650, slightly N of Wrenthorpe
Type Area
Interest Robin Hood name
Status Defunct
First Record 1651
A.k.a. Robinhoodstreteclose; Robin Hood Street close; Robin Hood Close
Loading map...
Robin Hood Street Close would have been in this neighbourhood.
Looking roughly north on Potovens Lane; Robin Hood Street Close would have been somewhere east or south-east of this spot / Google Earth Street View.

By Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2020-08-15. Revised by Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2021-02-11.

'Robinhoodstreteclose' figures in the records as early as 1651. It must have been situated somwhere on the east side of Potovens or Wrenthorpe Lane.

A. H. Smith treats the mention of this in the court roll of the Manor of Wakefield for 1651 as the earliest reference to a locality known in 1657 and later as Robin Hood Hill (see Records below).[1] However, rather than referring to the entire hill, the name probably referred to a close on the east side side of Potovens Lane, a street crossing Robin Hood's Hill in an area about equidistant from Wrenthorpe, Carr Gate and Outwood. This stretch of the lane was previously known as Robin Hood Hill Lane. On the east side of it formerly stood Robin Hood House, while at the north end of the hill, Robin Hood Bridge still takes Potovens Lane over the line of the former West Yorkshire Railway, which is now the Doncaster and Leeds Line. In 1790-91, a couple of generations before the railway came, several fields on the east side of Robin Hood Hill were named after Robin Hood or had been so within living memory:


Back in the mid-17th century Robin Hood Street Close was found there. In order to avoid nedless repetition across several pages, all these are discussed together here.

None of the closes on the east side of Potovens Lane can be pinpointed on the map, but they all lay on land belonging to the Manor of Wakefield, for they are all referred to in the Wakefield Manor Court Rolls. Since no tithes must be paid for them, they are not listed in the tithe award for Stanley cum Wrenthorpe (1845), but very helpfully they are included on the accompanying tithe map where, unlike those included in the tithe award, they are shown without a number referring to the corresponding schedule entry. The fact that 'numberless' fields and closes can potentially be identified as belonging to the manor tells us, together with the identity of the owner of the lands and a couple of references to identifiable localities in the court roll entries from 1790-91, in which neighbourhood the Robin Hood closes must have been located.

Lands of Outwood Hall

The records dating from 1790-91 (see Records below) are concerned with lands occupied by Joseph Armytage of 'the Lodge', the first group of properties being a 'capital mess[uage] at the Outwood Side called the Lodge', group vi a messuage situated 'near the Lodge, adjoining Brag Lane'. A web page on the history of Outwood Hall tells us that it was known in the 18th and 19th centuries as Woodside Lodge or 'the Lodge' tout court.[2] On 6" O.S. map Yorkshire 233 (1854) (see Maps below), only the part of Potovens Lane north of Bradford Road is known under that name, its name south of that road and as far south as Wrenthorpe being then named Brag Lane. The map also reveals that at the time the neighbourhood immediately south of Bradford Road and west of Brag Lane (Potovens Lane in modern terms) was known as Brag Lane End, a name which remained in use for a few decades but then disappeared from the maps. 25" O.S. map Yorkshire CCXXXIII.14 (1907) (see Maps below) includes the site of the Brag Lane Pit some 40 m NE of the present Potovens Lane/Bradford Road intersection, which suggests that the name Brag Lane may formerly have applied also to at least a stretch of Potovens Lane north of this interesction. Property group xi mentions Snow Hill, which is/was located near Red Hall Lane, south of Wrenthorpe. Modern residential streets in the vicinity are named Snow Hill Close and Rise. If this information is paired with what we can glean from the tithe award for Stanley cum Wrenthorpe it becomes clear that the Robin Hood closes must have been situated within an area bounded (approximately) on the north by Ledger Lane, on the east by Leeds Road (A61) as far south as the Bar Lane intersection, on the south by a line from the latter point to Wrenthorpe, on the west by Wrenthorpe Road and Potovens Lane to the interesction of the latter and Ledger Lane.

Here, in slightly condensed form, is the information given for the 15 property groups, with the estimated areas converted to m2 and rounded:

  1. Capital messuage at the Outwood Side called the Lodge, with barns, stables, dovecote, granary, outbuildings, gardens, orchard, foldstead and appurtenances, and a nearby or adjoining close of meadow or pasture, formerly a single close called Ox Close, now divided into 5 closes: Ox Close, Ponds Close, Calf Croft, the Paddock and Willans Close (estim. 36400 m2).
  2. Two closes, formerly called Eddish (variant form: Eddige) Close and Calf Croft, now part of Ox Close and called the Park (estim. 64750 m2, incl. gardens and orchard)
  3. 3 closes of meadow or pasture called Great Ing and Upper and Lower Walton Close (estim. 52600 m2); similar close or parcel of meadow or pasture formerly called Robin Hood Near Stile Close, now part of Upper Walton Close and called Waterhouse Close
  4. 1 close or parcel of arable, meadow or pasture called Robin Hood Farr Stile Close
  5. 1 close of meadow or pasture called Upper Robin Hood Close
  6. 1 messuage near the Lodge, adjoining Brag Lane, with outbuildings, croft, appurtenances and closes or parcels of meadow or pasture called Laith Close (formerly Robtree Royd), Square Close (formerly Robin Royd), and Seel Close (formerly Lower Robin Hood Close)
  7. 4 closes of meadow or pasture called Savile Close (formerly Pasture Close or Great Pasture), Boardman Close and Near and Far Beckett Close
  8. 1 close called Long Tongue (estim. area 8000 m2), Kelshaw Close (formerly Green Close), Lower Ing, now part of Bottom of Ox Close
  9. 1 close of meadow or pasture called Little or Middle Field (estim. 12150 m2). The several closes above all lie together or adjoining each other
  10. 1 parcel of land called Butler Car (estim. 4000 m2) in or near Ouchthorpe in Stanley
  11. 1 messuage called Cutt Yard House with adjoining close or parcel of land now used as a garden or orchard (estim. 1000 m2), near Snow Hill
  12. 1 close or parcel of arable, meadow or pasture called Lower Robin Hood Close, formerly in 2 closes called the Flagg Closes lately called Cow Close (estim. 8 acres), adjoining the 3 closes in item vi above.
  13. 1 close called Cobler Close formerly Square Close (estim. 16200 m2), lying between Boardman Close and Savile Close
  14. 1 close or parcel of land called the Three Nooked Close (estim. 16200 m2), adjoining Boardman Close, Far and Near Beckett Close and Little Field
  15. All other messuages, cottages, lands, hereditaments, premises and appurtenances in the Manor of Joseph Armytage, esq, of the Lodge.

It is clear from item vi that Lower Robin Hood Close must have been situated not very far from the hall and so near the north end of the area, but I do not believe it is possible to determine the location of this or any of the other Robin Hood closes on the basis of the information at hand. All that can be said is that they must have been in the area indicated on the interactive map shown on this page. In order to have the Robin Hood closes included on IRHB's maps, hey have been given different coordinates slightly east of Potovens Lane. Robin Hood House (Outwood) was located in the north-western corner of the area, so it may have been situated in one or other of the former Robin Hood Closes. The Robin Hood Close mentioned in the 1665 record may well be indetical with one of the closes mentioned in 1790-91, but again it does not seem possible to determine which (if any) of them. Perhaps some local history buff will be able to tell us where they were in fact located?

Records

1651 - Court Rolls of Manor of Wakefield

[1651/52:]
Robert Scott, lord's tenant, testified that Robert Simpson of East Ardisley on 1 May 1651 surrendered into the lord's hands personally a close of land called Robin Hood Street close with appurtenances near the Outwoodside of Wakefeld then occupied by William Gamble: to the use of Elizabeth Harrison, wife of John Harrison of Stanley, and her assigns for the term of her life at an annual rent of 15s payable to [p. 3:] Robert Simpson or his heirs...at Pentecost and Martinmas by even portions. Should the rent, or any part of it, fall into arrears by 14 days after being due, if lawfully required, Robert Simpson or his heirs...might enter to distrain until the rent and arrears were recovered. Agreed, by customary rents and services: entry fine [blank].[3]

1665 - Court Rolls of Manor of Wakefield

[1665:]
John Hopkinson, lord's tenant, testified that Thomas Fleminge, gen, in consideration of £20 paid to him in advance on 1 February last surrendered into the lord's hands personally and quit claimed to John Wingfeild, gen, son and heir of Ferdinando Wingfeild, gen, deceased, now in seisin, all interest title claim and demand ... in that close of land meadow or pasture at le Outwoodside of Wakefeld between the land lately of the said Thomas Fleminge called Robin hood Close also all that other close of land meadow or pasture called Cow Close at le Outwoodside of Wakefeld at a lord's rent of 2s 3d under composition, with all ways passages waters watercourses easements profits commodities emoluments and hereditaments ... John Wingfeild gave the lord a fine of 6d to enrol this quit claim. [4]

1790 - Court Rolls of Manor of Wakefield (2)

[1790:]

Stanley, First Proclamation

Seized by the Deputy Grave:

(i) capital mess at the Outwood Side called the Lodge with barns, stables, dovecote, granary, outbuildings, gardens, orchard, foldstead and appurts and with a nearby or adjoining close of meadow or pasture, formerly used as one close called the Ox Close, now divided into 5 closes called the Ox Close, Ponds Close, Calf Croft, the Paddock and Willans Close, by estimation 9 acres; (ii) 2 closes, formerly called Eddish Close and Calf Croft, which are now laid with the Ox Close and called the Park, by estimation 16 acres including the gardens and orchard of the mess, now in the occupation of Edward D'Oyley, esq, formerly of Samuel Armytage, esq, since dec, then of Mr Hardman; (iii) 3 closes of meadow or pasture called the Great Ing and Upper and Lower Walton Close, by estimation 13 acres, and a like close or parcel of meadow or pasture formerly called Robin Hood Near Stile Close, now laid with Upper Walton Close and called Waterhouse Close, all now in the occupation of Ely Midgeley; (iv) a close or parcel of arable, meadow or pasture called Robin Hood Farr Stile Close, by estimation [blank], now in the occupation of William Green, late of Joseph Battye; (v) a close of meadow or pasture called Upper Robin Hood Close, by estimation [blank], now in the occupation of Joseph Sidebottom; (vi) mess near the Lodge, adjoining Brag Lane, with outbuildings, croft, appurts and closes or parcels of meadow or pasture called Laith Close formerly Robtree Royd, Square Close formerly Robin Royd, and Seel Close formerly Lower Robin Hood Close, all now in the occupation of William Blakeley otherwise Blakely, formerly of Sarah Wilson, widow, and William, her son; (vii) 4 closes of meadow or pasture called Savile Close formerly Pasture Close or Great Pasture, Boardman Close and Near and Far Beckett Close, by estimation [blank], now in the occupation of John Gowland, formerly of Sarah and William Wilson; (viii) a like close called the Long Tongue, by estimation 2 acres, Kelshaw Close formerly Green Close, by estimation [blank], Lower Ing, now laid with the Bottom of Ox Close, by estimation [blank], all being now in the occupation of Robert Sidebottom and, except for the Long Tongue, formerly of Sarah and William Wilson; (ix) a close of meadow or pasture called the Little Field or Middle Field, by estimation 3 acres, now in the occupation of James Ledger, formerly of Richard Boys, then of John Gowland. The several closes above all lie together or adjoining each other; (x) a parcel of land called Butler Car, by [p. 32:] estimation 1 acre, in or near Ouchthorpe in Stanley, now in the occupation of Ely Midgeley, formerly of John Bramham; (xi) mess called Cutt Yard House with an adjoining close or parcel of land now used as a garden or orchard, by estimation 1 rood, near a place called Snow Hill now in the occupation of John Roberts, formerly of Gervase Roberts, then of Joseph Powell; (xii) a close or parcel of arable, meadow or pasture called Lower Robin Hood Close, formerly in 2 closes called the Flagg Closes lately called Cow Close, by estimation 8 acres, now in the occupation of William Blakeley, formerly of Sarah and John Wilson, adjoining the 3 last mentioned closes of William Blakely; (xiii) a like close called Cobler Close formerly Square Close by estimation 4 acres, lying between Boardman Close and Savile Close, now in the occupation of John Gowland, formerly of Sarah and John Wilson; (xiv) a like close or parcel of land called the Three Nooked Close, by estimation 4 acres, adjoining Boardman Close, Far and Near Beckett Close and Little Field, now in the occupation of James Ledger, formerly of Gervase Roberts, then of John Gowland; (xv) all other mess, cottages, lands, hereditaments, premises and appurts in the Manor of Joseph Armytage, esq, of the Lodge. Rent: [blank]. All compounded.[5]



1791 - Court Rolls of Manor of Wakefield (1)

[1791:]

Stanley, Second Proclamation [verbation repetition of 1790 - Court Rolls of Manor of Wakefield (2)]

Seized by the Deputy Grave:

(i) capital mess at the Outwood Side called the Lodge with barns, stables, dovecote, granary, outbuildings, gardens, orchard, foldstead and appurts and with a nearby or adjoining close of meadow or pasture, formerly used as one close called the Ox Close, now divided into 5 closes called the Ox Close, Ponds Close, Calf Croft, the Paddock and Willans Close, by estimation 9 acres; (ii) 2 closes, formerly called Eddish Close and Calf Croft, which are now laid with the Ox Close and called the Park, by estimation 16 acres including the gardens and orchard of the mess, now in the occupation of Edward D'Oyley, esq, formerly of Samuel Armytage, esq, since dec, then of Mr Hardman; (iii) 3 closes of meadow or pasture called the Great Ing and Upper and Lower Walton Close, by estimation 13 acres, and a like close or parcel of meadow or pasture formerly called Robin Hood Near Stile Close, now laid with Upper Walton Close and called Waterhouse Close, all now in the occupation of Ely Midgeley; (iv) a close or parcel of arable, meadow or pasture called Robin Hood Farr Stile Close, by estimation [blank], now in the occupation of William Green, late of Joseph Battye; (v) a close of meadow or pasture called Upper Robin Hood Close, by estimation [blank], now in the occupation of Joseph Sidebottom; (vi) mess near the Lodge, adjoining Brag Lane, with outbuildings, croft, appurts and closes or parcels of meadow or pasture called Laith Close formerly Robtree Royd, Square Close formerly Robin Royd, and Seel Close formerly Lower Robin Hood Close, all now in the occupation of William Blakeley otherwise Blakely, formerly of Sarah Wilson, widow, and William, her son; (vii) 4 closes of meadow or pasture called Savile Close formerly Pasture Close or Great Pasture, Boardman Close and Near and Far Beckett Close, by estimation [blank], now in the occupation of John Gowland, formerly of Sarah and William Wilson; (viii) a like close called the Long Tongue, by estimation 2 acres, Kelshaw Close formerly Green Close, by estimation [blank], Lower Ing, now laid with the Bottom of Ox Close, by estimation [blank], all being now in the occupation of Robert Sidebottom and, except for the Long Tongue, formerly of Sarah and William Wilson; (ix) a close of meadow or pasture called the Little Field or Middle Field, by estimation 3 acres, now in the occupation of James Ledger, formerly of Richard Boys, then of John Gowland. The several closes above all lie together or adjoining each other; (x) a parcel of land called Butler Car, by [p. 32:] estimation 1 acre, in or near Ouchthorpe in Stanley, now in the occupation of Ely Midgeley, formerly of John Bramham; (xi) mess called Cutt Yard House with an adjoining close or parcel of land now used as a garden or orchard, by estimation 1 rood, near a place called Snow Hill now in the occupation of John Roberts, formerly of Gervase Roberts, then of Joseph Powell; (xii) a close or parcel of arable, meadow or pasture called Lower Robin Hood Close, formerly in 2 closes called the Flagg Closes lately called Cow Close, by estimation 8 acres, now in the occupation of William Blakeley, formerly of Sarah and John Wilson, adjoining the 3 last mentioned closes of William Blakely; (xiii) a like close called Cobler Close formerly Square Close by estimation 4 acres, lying between Boardman Close and Savile Close, now in the occupation of John Gowland, formerly of Sarah and John Wilson; (xiv) a like close or parcel of land called the Three Nooked Close, by estimation 4 acres, adjoining Boardman Close, Far and Near Beckett Close and Little Field, now in the occupation of James Ledger, formerly of Gervase Roberts, then of John Gowland; (xv) all other mess, cottages, lands, hereditaments, premises and appurts in the Manor of Joseph Armytage, esq, of the Lodge. Rent: [blank]. All compounded.[6]

1791 - Court Rolls of Manor of Wakefield (2)

[1791:]

Stanley, Third Proclamation [verbation repetition of 1790 - Court Rolls of Manor of Wakefield (2)]

Seized by the Deputy Grave:

(i) capital mess at the Outwood Side called the Lodge with barns, stables, dovecote, granary, outbuildings, gardens, orchard, foldstead and appurts and with a nearby or adjoining close of meadow or pasture, formerly used as one close called the Ox Close, now divided into 5 closes called the Ox Close, Ponds Close, Calf Croft, the Paddock and Willans Close, by estimation 9 acres; (ii) 2 closes, formerly called Eddish Close and Calf Croft, which are now laid with the Ox Close and called the Park, by estimation 16 acres including the gardens and orchard of the mess, now in the occupation of Edward D'Oyley, esq, formerly of Samuel Armytage, esq, since dec, then of Mr Hardman; (iii) 3 closes of meadow or pasture called the Great Ing and Upper and Lower Walton Close, by estimation 13 acres, and a like close or parcel of meadow or pasture formerly called Robin Hood Near Stile Close, now laid with Upper Walton Close and called Waterhouse Close, all now in the occupation of Ely Midgeley; (iv) a close or parcel of arable, meadow or pasture called Robin Hood Farr Stile Close, by estimation [blank], now in the occupation of William Green, late of Joseph Battye; (v) a close of meadow or pasture called Upper Robin Hood Close, by estimation [blank], now in the occupation of Joseph Sidebottom; (vi) mess near the Lodge, adjoining Brag Lane, with outbuildings, croft, appurts and closes or parcels of meadow or pasture called Laith Close formerly Robtree Royd, Square Close formerly Robin Royd, and Seel Close formerly Lower Robin Hood Close, all now in the occupation of William Blakeley otherwise Blakely, formerly of Sarah Wilson, widow, and William, her son; (vii) 4 closes of meadow or pasture called Savile Close formerly Pasture Close or Great Pasture, Boardman Close and Near and Far Beckett Close, by estimation [blank], now in the occupation of John Gowland, formerly of Sarah and William Wilson; (viii) a like close called the Long Tongue, by estimation 2 acres, Kelshaw Close formerly Green Close, by estimation [blank], Lower Ing, now laid with the Bottom of Ox Close, by estimation [blank], all being now in the occupation of Robert Sidebottom and, except for the Long Tongue, formerly of Sarah and William Wilson; (ix) a close of meadow or pasture called the Little Field or Middle Field, by estimation 3 acres, now in the occupation of James Ledger, formerly of Richard Boys, then of John Gowland. The several closes above all lie together or adjoining each other; (x) a parcel of land called Butler Car, by [p. 32:] estimation 1 acre, in or near Ouchthorpe in Stanley, now in the occupation of Ely Midgeley, formerly of John Bramham; (xi) mess called Cutt Yard House with an adjoining close or parcel of land now used as a garden or orchard, by estimation 1 rood, near a place called Snow Hill now in the occupation of John Roberts, formerly of Gervase Roberts, then of Joseph Powell; (xii) a close or parcel of arable, meadow or pasture called Lower Robin Hood Close, formerly in 2 closes called the Flagg Closes lately called Cow Close, by estimation 8 acres, now in the occupation of William Blakeley, formerly of Sarah and John Wilson, adjoining the 3 last mentioned closes of William Blakely; (xiii) a like close called Cobler Close formerly Square Close by estimation 4 acres, lying between Boardman Close and Savile Close, now in the occupation of John Gowland, formerly of Sarah and John Wilson; (xiv) a like close or parcel of land called the Three Nooked Close, by estimation 4 acres, adjoining Boardman Close, Far and Near Beckett Close and Little Field, now in the occupation of James Ledger, formerly of Gervase Roberts, then of John Gowland; (xv) all other mess, cottages, lands, hereditaments, premises and appurts in the Manor of Joseph Armytage, esq, of the Lodge. Rent: [blank]. All compounded.[7]

1791 - Court Rolls of Manor of Wakefield (3)

[1791:]

83 Stanley, admission of

JOSEPH ARMYTAGE of the Lodge, par Wakefield, esq, took from the Lord of the Manor premises lately seized into the hands of the Lord of the Manor because ARMYTAGE by his indenture of demise of 26 Oct 1790 had demised, granted and let them to farm to John Lee of Wakefield, gent, from [25 Oct 1790] for the term of 21 years without a fine, without a licence from the court, in contempt of the Lord of the Manor and contrary to the custom of the Manor. This was found by a sworn inquest at a Court Baron of Wakefield on 26 Nov 1790 and presented and on proclamation published in three Wakefield courts [see Stanley Proclamations, 17 Dec 1790, 7 and 28 Jan by custom that should any person acknowledge he holds the premises of the Lord of the Manor and pay and perform to him the rents and services then they should come in and be received. ARMYTAGE did so and was admitted as tenant to:

(i) capital mess at the Outwood Side called the Lodge with barns, stables, dovecote, granary, outbuildings, gardens, orchard, foldstead and appurts and with a nearby or adjoining close of meadow or pasture, formerly used as one close, called the Ox Close, now divided into 5 closes, called the Ox Close, Ponds Close, Calf Croft, the Paddock and Willans Close, by estimation 9 acres; (ii) 2 closes, formerly called Eddige Close and Calf Croft, which are now laid with the Ox Close and called the Park, by estimation 16 acres including the gardens and orchard of the mess, now in the occupation of Edward D'Oyley, esq, formerly of Samuel Armytage, esq, since dec, then of Mr Hardman; (iii) 3 closes of meadow or pasture called the Great Ing and Upper and Lower Walton Close, by estimation 13 acres and a like close or parcel of meadow or pasture formerly called Robin Hood Near Stile Close, now laid with Upper Walton Close and called Waterhouse Close, all now in the occupation of Ely Midgeley; (iv) a close or parcel of arable, meadow or pasture called Robin Hood Farr Stile Close, by estimation [blank], now in the occupation of William Green, late of Joseph Battye; (v) a close of meadow or pasture called Upper Robin Hood Close, by estimation [blank], now in the occupation of Joseph Sidebottom; (vi) mess near the Lodge, adjoining Brag Lane, with outbuildings, croft, appurts and closes or parcels of meadow or pasture called Laith Close formerly Robtree Royd, Square Close formerly Robin Royd, and Seel Close formerly Lower Robin Hood Close, all now in the occupation of William Blakeley otherwise Blakely, formerly of Sarah Wilson, widow, and William, her son; (vii) 4 closes of meadow or pasture called Savile [p. 52:] Close formerly Pasture Close otherwise Great Pasture, Boardman Close and Near and Far Beckett Close, by estimation [blank], now in the occupation of John Gowland, formerly of Sarah and William Wilson; (viii) a like close called the Long Tongue, by estimation 2 acres, Kelshaw Close formerly Green Close, by estimation [blank], Lower Ing, now laid with the Bottom of Ox Close, by estimation [blank], all now in the occupation of Robert Sidebottom and, except for the Long Tongue, formerly of Sarah and William Wilson; (ix) a close of meadow or pasture called the Little Field or Middle Field, by estimation 3 acres, now in the occupation of James Ledger, formerly of Richard Boys, then of John Gowland; the several closes above all lying together or adjoining each other; (x) a parcel of land called Buttler Car, by estimation 1 acre, in or near Ouchthorpe in Stanley, now in the occupation of Ely Midgeley, formerly of John Bramham; (xi) mess called Cutt Yard House with an adjoining close or parcel of land now used as a garden or orchard, by estimation 1 rood, near a place called Snow Hill now in the occupation of John Roberts, formerly of Gervase Roberts, then of Joseph Powell; (xii) a close or parcel of arable, meadow or pasture called Lower Robin Hood Close formerly in 2 closes called the Flagg Closes lately called Cow Close, by estimation 8 acres, now in the occupation of William Blakeley, formerly of Sarah and John Wilson, adjoining the 3 last mentioned closes of William Blakeley; (xiii) a like close called Cobler Close formerly Square Close, by estimation 4 acres, lying between Boardman Close and Savile Close, now in the occupation of John Gowland, formerly of Sarah and John Wilson; (xiv) a like close or parcel of land called the Three Nooked Close, by estimation 4 acres, adjoining Boardman Close, Far and Near Beckett Close and Little Field, now in the occupation of James Ledger, formerly of Gervase Roberts, then of John Gowland; (xv) all other mess, cottages, lands, hereditaments, premises and appurts in the Manor of Joseph Armytage. Fine: £2 5s Od compounded, £50 uncompounded.
Rent: [blank] part compounded.

Note: the lease and warrant were enrolled with the surrender.

Annex: warrant [last five pages] to seize, 16 Dec 1790, [sig] Robert Lumb with a note that the precept was executed, [sig] John Senior, Deputy Grave of Stanley, George Goodyear, Joseph Carver, Abraham Bedford and Robert Pearson, copyholders.[8]


Gazetteers

Printed sources

Maps

Background

Also see


Notes

  1. Smith, A.H. The Place-Names of the West Riding of Yorkshire (English Place-Name Society, vols. XXX-XXXVII) (Cambridge, 1961-63), pt. II, p. 158, where the date is cited as 1650.
  2. Outwood Community Video: The Story of Outwood Hall.
  3. Robinson, Lilian, ed.; Fraser, C. M., gen. ed. The Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield from 1651 to 1652 (The Wakefield Court Rolls Series of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society, vol. VIII) (Leeds, 1990), pp. 2-3.
  4. Fraser, Constance M, ed. & gen. ed.; Emsley, Kenneth, ed. The Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, from October 1664 to September 1665 (The Wakefield Court Rolls Series of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society, vol. V) (Leeds, 1986), p. 53.
  5. Brent, Andrew, ed.; Barber, B. J., introd.; Fraser, C. M., gen. ed. The Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, from 1790 to 1792 (The Wakefield Court Rolls Series of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society, vol. X) (Leeds, 1994), pp. 31-32
  6. Brent, Andrew, ed.; Barber, B. J., introd.; Fraser, C. M., gen. ed. The Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, from 1790 to 1792 (The Wakefield Court Rolls Series of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society, vol. X) (Leeds, 1994), pp. 31-32
  7. Brent, Andrew, ed.; Barber, B. J., introd.; Fraser, C. M., gen. ed. The Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, from 1790 to 1792 (The Wakefield Court Rolls Series of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society, vol. X) (Leeds, 1994), pp. 31-32
  8. Brent, Andrew, ed.; Barber, B. J., introd.; Fraser, C. M., gen. ed. The Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, from 1790 to 1792 (The Wakefield Court Rolls Series of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society, vol. X) (Leeds, 1994), pp. 52-53.