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Cumberland place-names

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By Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2017-02-21. Revised by Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2018-10-20.

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County description

The Historic Counties Trust describes Cumberland as follows:

Cumberland must be looked at in two parts, a highland area and a lowland, coastal area. The hills of Cumberland form a great part of the exquisite Lake District. Derwentwater, Buttermere and Crummockwater, Ennerdale Water, Wast Water, and part of Ullswater lie in Cumberland. Above them rise mountains, including England's highest mountain, Scafell Pike (3,210 feet). Also within Cumberland are Scafell, Skiddaw, Great Gable and Pillar. This is prime walking country for hardy souls. Beyond the green Eden valley, the Penines cross the east of Cumberland, with Cross Pell, 2,930 feet, the highest. In the north is Carlisle, a cathedral city, whose massive castle and fortifications against the Scots still dominate much of the town. In the rest of Cumberland fortified churches and "peel houses" are found, built as a defence not so much against the Scots as against reivers, who terrorised the border country before the Union. Cumberland's coast has industrial towns, though industry has faded, leaving urban deprivation a problem, particularly in Whitehaven which was once a major port for the Atlantic trade. The Sellafield nuclear power station at Seascale is a major employer.

Main Towns: Alston, Brampton, Cockermouth, Carlisle, Keswick, Maryport, Penrith, Whitehaven, Wigton, Workington.
Main Rivers: Eden, Derwent, Esk, Duddon.
Highlights: Carlile Castle & Cathedral; Castellrigg & Long Meg and her Daughters stone circles; Hadrien's Wall; Scafell Pike.
Highest Point: Scafell Pike, 978.41 m.
Area: 3926.42 km2.[1]

Chronology

16th Century

1 Robin Hood-related place-name first documented in the 16th century.

19th Century

10 Robin Hood-related place-names first documented in the 19th century.

20th Century

5 Robin Hood-related place-names first documented in the 20th century.

21st Century

4 Robin Hood-related place-names first documented in the 21st century.

All localities

20 Place-names and localities.

Place-name clusters

3 Clusters of Robin Hood place-names, localities with local traditions, literary locales etc.

Lists and gazetteers

Background

Neighbours

Notes

  1. The Historic Counties Trust has kindly allowed me to quote its county descriptions in toto. I have converted square miles to km2 and feet to meters.