Gest of Robyn Hode
|Title||A Gest of Robyn Hode|
By Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2013-08-07. Revised by Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2019-01-29.
Scholarly and literary collections
- Allingham, William, ed. The Ballad Book: A Selection of the Choicest British Ballads (Cambridge, 1865), pp. 160-236. Title: A Lytell Geste of Robyn Hode.
- Allingham, William, ed. The Ballad Book: A Selection of the Choicest Old Ballads (New York, 1886), pp. 160-236. Title: A Lytell Geste of Robyn Hode.
- Allingham, William, ed. The Ballad Book: A Selection of the Choicest British Ballads (Golden Treasury Series) (London and New York, 1898), pp. 160-236. Title: A Lytell Geste of Robyn Hode.
- Arber, Edward, ed. An English Garner; Ingatherings from our History and Literature (London and Chilworth, 1877), vol. VI, pp. 423-68.
- Child, Francis James, ed.; [Kittredge, G.L., ed.]; [Ireland, Catharine Innes, bibl.] The English and Scottish Popular Ballads (Boston and New York; Cambridge, Massachusetts; London, ©1882-98), vol. III, pp. 39-89. Additions and corrections: vol. III, p. 519; vol. IV, pp. 496-97; vol. V, pp. 240, 297.
- Ohlgren, Thomas H., ed. A Book of Medieval Outlaws: Ten Tales in Modern English (Stroud, 1998). Modern English prose translation.
- Ohlgren, Thomas H., ed. A Book of Medieval Outlaws: Ten Tales in Modern English (Stroud, 2000). Modern English prose translation.
- Ohlgren, Thomas H., ed. Medieval Outlaws: Twelve Tales in Modern English Translation. Revised and Expanded Edition (Anderson, SC, 2005). Modern English prose translation.
- Grün, Anastasius, transl. Robin Hood. Ein Balladenkranz nach Altenglischen Volksliedern (Stuttgart, 1864), pp. 166-68: "Robin Hood verläßt den Hof"; notes, p. 220. Stanzas 433, 435-450 of the Gest.
- Grün, Anastasius, transl.; Frankl, Ludwig August, ed. Anastasius Grüns Gesammelte Werke (Berlin, 1877), pp. 307-309: "Robin Hood verläßt den Hof". Stanzas 433, 435-450 of the Gest.
- Oman, Carola. Robin Hood, the Prince of Outlaws: A Tale of the Fourteenth Century from the "Lytell Geste" (London, 1937)
- Oman, Carola. Robin Hood, the Prince of Outlaws: A Tale of the Fourteenth Century from the "Lytell Geste" (London, 1949)
- Oman, Carola. Robin Hood, the Prince of Outlaws: A Tale of the Fourteenth Century from the "Lytell Geste" (London, )
- Oman, Carola. Robin Hood, the Prince of Outlaws: A Tale of the Fourteenth Century from the "Lytell Geste." (Sydney, 1987).
Studies and criticism
- Clawson, W.H. The Gest of Robin Hood (University of Toronto Studies, Philological [& Literature] Series [Extra Volume, No. 2]). ([Toronto], 1909). Seminal and indispensable study of the hypothetical ballad sources of the Gest. Important as it is, it is also, unfortunately, based on assumptions that are either incorrect or highly questionable. Thus it is assumed from the outset that the Gest must be a compilation of pre-existing Robin Hood ballads, that it incorporates the latter in a transparent way, and that the ballad sources dated back to c. 1400 or even earlier. It seems to have been generally overlooked that Clawson admits in his conclusion that the second of these assumptions is not correct.
- Coote, H.C. 'The Origin of the Robin Hood Epos', The Folk-Lore Journal, vol. III (1885), pp. 44-52. Discusses the Gest of Robyn Hode to demonstrate "the disagreeable fact [...] that communism was publicly advocated in this country in the reign of that too glorious monarch Edward III". Crude and antagonistic as it is, Coote's paper in its essence anticipates the views of Hilton and Keen in his younger years.
- Curtis, J. Lewelyn. 'Robes and Fees in the Days of Robin Hood', Notes & Queries, Series 1, vol. VI (1852), pp. 479-80
- Kaufman, Alexander L. 'Histories of Contexts: Form, Argument, and Ideology in A Gest of Robyn Hode', in: Kaufman, Alexander L., ed. British Outlaws of Literature and History (Jefferson, NC, 2011), pp. 146-64
- Kerry, Rebecca. "‘He Tolde Oute Four Hundred Pounde’: Resolution of an Arithmetical Problem in Editions of A Gest of Robyn Hode", Notes & Queries, vol. 60 (2013), pp. 367-70
- Hepworth, David. 'A grave tale', in: Phillips, Helen, ed. Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval (Dublin, 2005), pp. 91-112
- Kirgiss, Crystal. 'Popular Devotion and Prosperity Gospel in Early Robin Hood Tales', in: Kaufman, Alexander L., ed. British Outlaws of Literature and History (Jefferson, NC, 2011), pp. 165-78
- Lawrence, William Witherle. Medieval Story and the Beginnings of the Social Ideals of English-Speaking People (New York, 1911); "Lecture VII—The Ballads of Robin Hood" (pp. 169-94). On the Gest see especially pp. 177, 181-89.
- Leahy, Mark. '"Where Shall We Rob?": Fantasies of Justice in the Early Robin Hood Ballads', in: Kaufman, Alexander L., ed. British Outlaws of Literature and History (Jefferson, NC, 2011), pp. 204-18
- McManaway, James G. 'Duff 362', The Times Literary Supplement (15 May 1953), p. 317. On fragments of Pynson's edition.
- Nielsen, Henrik Thiil. The Literary Evidence of the Gest of Robin Hood and the Origins of the Outlaw Tradition (M.A. thesis, University of Copenhagen, 1990).
- Pearcy, Roy. 'The literary Robin Hood: character and function in Fitts 1, 2 and 4 of the Gest of Robyn Hode', in: Phillips, Helen, ed. Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval (Dublin, 2005), pp. 60-68
- Taylor. Joseph. '"Me longeth sore to Bernysdale": Centralization, Resistance, and the Bare Life of the Greenwood in A Gest of Robyn Hode', Modern Philology, vol. 110 (2013), pp. 313-39. Discusses the greenwood setting of the Gest, arguing that the poem reflects the resistance of the northern aristocracy. Robin Hood's antiauthoritarian dynamic is complex as he reveres the king. Barnsdale or the greenwood is a space where nature and politics intersect.
- Thompson, Kimberly A. Macaure. 'The Late Medieval Robin Hood Ballads: Economics Revisited', in: Kaufman, Alexander L., ed. British Outlaws of Literature and History (Jefferson, NC, 2011), pp. 179-203.
- Wadiak, Walter. 'What shall these bowes do?': The Gift and its Violence in A Gest of Robyn Hode', Exemplaria, vol. 24 (2012), pp. 238-59
Sources and analogues
For general discussion of, and sources relating to, other outlaw traditions and tales, e.g. those of Hereward, Eustace the Monk, Fulk Fitz-Warin, Gamelyn, Adam Bell etc., see the Analogues section, where is also found matter relating to king and subject tales, exempla etc. Below is included only matter relating to specific incidents, motifs or section of the Gest.
|59-60||Impoverished knight deserted by former friends.||How a Jew lent a Christian money.||Impoverished merchant can find no friend willing to stand surety; they all ignore him.|
|65-66||Robin Hood accepts Virign Mary as surety.||How a Jew lent a Christian money.||Abraham accepts Virgin Mary as guarantor for money he lends Theodorus.|
|149:2||Name: Reynolde Grënelef.||Marsk Stig (DgF 145).||Ranne, Ranni, Ranil, Ranild. In real life Rane Jonsen or Rane Jonsen Rani (1254-94), chamberlain to King Erik V of Denmark.|
|154-204||Little John lures sheriff into Robin's hands with hunting prospects as bait.||Marsk Stig (DgF 145 A).||At suggestion of Ranne (Ranni, Ranil, Ranild) he and his master, king Erik [V of Denmark] go hunting en route to parliament. Entire retinue except Ranne are sent away. After a long chase, night falls and Ranne suggests they take shelter in a barn where he has arranged for assassins to enter and murder the king.|
|293:3||Name: Reynold [distinct from Little John].||Marsk Stig (DgF 145).||Ranne, Ranni, Ranil, Ranild. In real life Rane Jonsen or Rane Jonsen Rani (1254-94), chamberlain to King Erik V of Denmark.|
|368-73||King and retinue disguise as gray monks.||Marsk Stig (DgF 145 F & G).||Regicides don habits of grey monks [as disguise].|
Robyn Hudde in bernsdale stode : he leynyd hym tyll a maple thystyll
then came owre lady and swete seynt Andrew : slepes thow
wakes thou Geffrey coke
a hundredth wynter the water was brawde J cannot tell you
He toke a gose neck in hys hond and ouer the water he went
Jack boy ys thy boo J broke; or hase anyman done the
He toke a bend boo in hys hond : and set hym down by þe fyre
my dame began to spyn a threde : hyr nose stode all a
crokyd into the sowth
Who darbe so harde darde ; as to crack under the walles of dover
The holy Bybyll, grounde of trouth and of lawe
Is nowe of many abiect and nought set by
Nor godly scripture is nat worth an hawe
But talys ar louyd grounde of rybawdry
And many blynddyd ar so with theyr foly
That no scripture thynke they so true nor gode
As is a folysshe yest of Robyn hode.
And in the mornynge whan they come to the quere
The one begynneth a Fable or a hystory
The other lenyth theyr erys it to here
Takynge it in stede of the inuyntory
Some other maketh respons antym and memory
And all of fables and iestis of Robyn hode
Or other tryfyls that skantly ar so gode.
Holde me excusyd: for why my wyll is gode
Men to induce vnto vertue and goodnes
I wryte no iest ne tale of Robyn hode
Nor sawe no sparcles ne sede of vyciousnes
Wyse men loue vertue, wylde people wantones
It longeth nat to my scyence nor cunnynge
For Phylyp the Sparowe the (Dirige) to synge.
Yet would I gladly heare some mery fit
Of mayde Marion, or els of Robin hood;
Or Bentleyes ale which chafeth well the bloud,
Of perre of Norwich, or sauce of Wilberton,
Or buckishe Joly well-stuffed as a ton.
|Hu.||Now yf that Sensuall Appetyte cā fynd|
Any good mynstrellℯ after hys mynd
|yng.||And so shall we haue for a suerte|
But what shall we do now tell me
|Hu.||Then let vs some lusty balet syng|
|yng.||Nay syr by þe heuyn kyng,|
For me thynkyth it seruyth for no thyng
|Hu.||Pes man pryksong may not be dispysyd|
For ther with god is well plesyd
|yng.||Js god well pleasyd trowst thou therby|
Nay nay for there is no reason why
|Hu.||Then a feleshyp let vs here it|
|yng.||But there is a bordon thou must bere it|
Or ellys it wyll not be [sig. E8r:]
|Hu.||¶Than begyn and care not for [page torn]|
¶ Downe downe downe &c.
|yng.||Robyn hode in barnysdale stode|
And lent hym tyl a mapyll thystyll
And though we count, but Robin Hood a Jest,
And old wiues tales, as tatling toyes appeare:
Yet Arthurs raigne, the world cannot denye,
Such proofe there is, the troth thereof to trye:
That who so speakes, against so graue a thing,
Shall blush to blot, the shame of such a King.
What maist thou be that ould Winken de word,
that of all shepheards wert the man alone,
that once with laughter shook'st the shepheardes
with thyne own madnes lastly ouerthrown (boord
I think thou dotst in thy declining age.
Or for the loosnesse of thy youth art sory, [p. 69:]
and therefore vowed som solemn pilgrimage
to holy Hayles, or Patricks purgatory,
Come sit we down vnder this Hawthorn tree,
the morrows light shall lend vs day enough,
And let vs tel of Gawen, or Sir Guy.
Of Robin-hood, or of ould Clim a Clough,
Or els some Romant vnto vs areede,
By former shepheards taught thee in thy youth,
Of noble Lords and Ladies gentle deed
Or of thy Loue or of thy lasses trueth.
Shepheard no no, that world with me is past,
Merry was it when we those toys might tell
But tis not now as when thou sawst me last
A great mischance me since that time befel,
Elphin is dead, and in his graue is layde,
O to report it, how my hart it greueth,
Cruel that fate that so the time betrayd
And of our ioyes vntimely vs depriueth.
- Ker, W.P.; Chambers, R.W., annotator. Form and Style in Poetry: Lectures and Notes (London, 1928), pp. 34, 37. Cites (p. 34) the opening line of the Gest as a typical example of a minstrel's introductory tag. P. 37: the Gest, the Danish Long Ballad of Marsk Stig, and one of the Spanish ballads on the Infantes de Lara are examples of "the compiling of separate songs into one poem".
- Moore, John Robert. 'Omission of the Central Action in English Ballads', Modern Philology, vol. XIII (1914), pp. 391-406; see pp. 394, 396, 397, 404.
- Doubtful place-names in A Gest of Robyn Hode
- Place-names in A Gest of Robyn Hode
- Prioresses of Kirklees.
- Holt, J.C. Robin Hood (London, 1982), p. 69; facsimile p. 70; p. 194, n. 2 to ch. IV.
- Holt, J.C.; Takamiya, T. 'A New Version of A Rhyme of Robin Hood', English Manuscript Studies 1100-1700, vol. 1 (1989), pp. 213-21; see pp. 218-20.
- Barclay, Alexander, adapt.; Brandt, Sebastian; Jamieson, Thomas Hill, ed. The Ship of Fools (Edinburgh: London, 1874), vol. I, p. 72.
- Barclay, Alexander, adapt.; Brandt, Sebastian; Jamieson, Thomas Hill, ed. The Ship of Fools (Edinburgh: London, 1874), vol. II, p. 155.
- Barclay, Alexander, adapt.; Brandt, Sebastian; Jamieson, Thomas Hill, ed. The Ship of Fools (Edinburgh: London, 1874), vol. II, p. 331.
- Barclay, Alexander, adapt.; Brandt, Sebastian; Jamieson, Thomas Hill, ed. The Ship of Fools (Edinburgh: London, 1874), vol. I, p. lxvii.
- [Rastell, John.] The Nature of the Four Elements (The Tudor Facsimile Texts) (London and Edinburgh, 1908), sigs. E7v-E8r.
- Churchyard, Thomas. THE Worthines of Wales: VVherein are more then a thousand seuerall things rehearsed (London. 1587), sig [C4r].
- Drayton, Michael. Poemes, Lyrick and Pastorall (Publications of the Spenser Society, New Series, Issue No. 4) (1891), pp. 68-69.