By Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2013-07-12. Revised by Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2018-11-25.
Fulk Fitz-Warin III (c. 1160-1258) was a Marcher Lord and heir to Whittington Castle in Shropshire, who in 1200, when he was denied the right to inherit the castle, went into rebellion against King John. He was pardoned and reinstated as lord of Whittington in 1203. His deeds and those of his ancestors were the subject of a 13th century Anglo-Norman narrative poem that was part ancestral romance, part outlaw tale. This is lost, but a very close 13th century prose paraphrase survives. There was also an ME metrical romance which was still extant in the mid-16th century, when John Leland made excerpts from it, supplementing it, where a couple of leaves were missing, with the Anglo-Norman version. The story of Fulk's outlawry, as told in these literary sources, is not only very interesting in it own right but also has many clear, sometimes very close, parallels to the early Robin Hood ballads, especially the Gest.
Anglo-Norman prose paraphrase
- Brandin, Louis, ed. The History of Fulk Fitz-Warine (London, 1904)
- Brandin, Louis, ed. Fouke Fitz Warin (Paris, 1930)
- Hathaway, E.J., ed.; Ricketts, P.T., ed.; Robson, C.A., ed.; Wilshere, A.D., ed. Fouke Le Fitz Waryn (Anglo-Norman Text Society, Nos. 26-28) (Oxford, ©1976)
- Burgess, Glyn S., transl. Two Medieval Outlaws: Eustace the Monk and Fouke Fitz Waryn (Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK; Rochester, NY, USA, 1997), pp. 89-210
- Kelly, Thomas E., transl. 'Eustache the Monk', in: Ohlgren, Thomas H., ed. A Book of Medieval Outlaws: Ten Tales in Modern English (Stroud, 1998), pp. 12-60, 299-302
- Kelly, Thomas E., transl. 'Eustache the Monk', in: Ohlgren, Thomas H., ed. A Book of Medieval Outlaws: Ten Tales in Modern English (Stroud, 2000), pp. 12-60, 299-302
- Kelly, Thomas E., transl. 'Eustache the Monk', in: Ohlgren, Thomas H., ed. Medieval Outlaws: Twelve Tales in Modern English Translation. Revised and Expanded Edition (Anderson, SC, 2005), pp. 100-50
- Leland, John; Hearne, Thomas, ed. J. Lelandi antiquarii de rebus Britannicis Collectanea (London, 1774), vol. I, pp. 230-36, excerpt from English FFW romance; vol. I, pp. 236-37, excerpt from Anglo-Norman romance.
Studies and criticism
- Bedford, Kathryn. 'Fouke le Fitz Waryn: Outlaw or Chivalric Hero', in: Kaufman, Alexander L., ed. British Outlaws of Literature and History (Jefferson, NC, 2011), pp. 97-113
- Burgess, Glyn. 'Fouke Fitz Waryn III and King John: Good Outlaw and Bad King', in: Phillips, Helen, ed. Bandit Territories: British Outlaw Traditions (Cardiff, 2008), pp. 73-98
- Cavell, Emma. 'Fouke le Fitz Waryn: Literary Space for Real Women?', Parergon, vol. 27 (2010), pp. 89-109
- Hanna, Ralph. 'The Matter of Fulk: Romance and History in the Marches', Journal of English and Germanic Philology, vol. 110 (2011), pp. 337-58
- Harlan-Haughey, Sarah; Coote, Lesley A., ser. ed.; Kaufman, Alexander L., ser. ed. The Ecology of the English Outlaw in Medieval Literature: From Fen to Greenwood / Sarah Harlan-Haughey (Outlaws in Literature, History, and Culture, [vol. I]) (London [recte: Abingdon, Oxfordshire] and New York, 2016). See especially ch. 3, "Frontier Fauvism in Fouke le Fitz Waryn" (pp. 101-42) and as per index s.n. Fulk fitz Waryn.
- Jones, Timothy S. 'Geoffrey of Monmouth, Fouke le Fitz Waryn and National Mythology', Studies in Philology, vol. 91 (1994), pp. 233-49
- Levy, Raphael. "'Fouke Fitz Warin': Lexique Supplémentaire", Philological Quarterly, vol.12 (1933), pp.83-85
- Meisel, Janet. 'Barons of the Welsh Frontier: The Corbet, Pantulf, and Fitz Warin Families 1066–1272 (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1980)
- Osborn, Marijane. 'The Real Fulk Fitzwarine's Mythical Monster Fights', in: Baker, Peter S, ed.; Howe, Nicholas, ed. Words and Works: Studies in Medieval English Language and Literature in Honour of Fred C. Robinson (Toronto Old English Studies) (Toronto, 1998), pp. 271-92
- P., W.P. 'Gestes of Guarine', Notes & Queries, Series 2, vol. VIII (1859), p. 147; on Leland's paraphrase of FFW. Solicits information about Leland's ME and AN sources; query does not appear to have been answered.
- Pensom, Roger. 'Inside and Outside: Fact and Fiction in "Fouke le Fitz Waryn"', Medium Ævum, vol. 63 (1994), pp. 53-60
- Rock, Catherine A. 'Fouke le Fitz Waryn and King John: Rebellion and Reconciliation', in: Kaufman, Alexander L., ed. British Outlaws of Literature and History (Jefferson, NC, 2011), pp. 67-96
- Southam, S Clement. 'A Shropshire Robin Hood', Transactions of the Shropshire Archæological and Natural History Society, Second Series, vol. IX (1897), pp. 1-20
- Wikipedia: Fulk FitzWarin.
- Wilson, R. M. 'Lost Literature in Old and Middle English', Leeds Studies in English, vol. 2 (1933). pp. 14-37; see pp. 35-36.
- Brown, P.; King, P.; Remfry, P. 'Whittington Castle: The marcher fortress of the Fitz Warin family', Shropshire Archaeology and History, vol. LXXIX (2004), pp. 106-127
- Northall, John: Whittington Castle
- Painter, Sidney. The Reign of King John (Baltimore, 1949), pp. 48-52, 84, 157, 280, 294.
Places named after or connected with Fulk Fitz-Warin