1660 - Hall, Thomas - Funebria Florae
|Mentions||Flora; Maid Marians; morris dancers; maskers; mummers; maypole stealers; fiddlers; fools|
By Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2014-09-12. Revised by Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2018-07-28.
The Indictment of Flora.
Flora, hold up thy hand,
Thou art here indicted by the name of Flora, of the City of Rome in the County of Babylon, for that thou, contrary to the peace of our Soveraign Lord, his Crown and Dignity, hast brought in a pack of practical Fanaticks, viz. Ignorants, Atheists, Papists, Drunkards, Swearers, Swash-bucklers, Maid-marrions, Morrice-dancers, Maskers, Mummers, May-pole-stealers, Health-drinkers, together with a rascalian rout of Fidlers, Fools, Fighters, Gamesters, Whoremasters, Lewd-men, Light-women, Contemners of Magistracy, affronters of Ministery, rebellious to Masters, disobedient to Parents, mis-spenders of time, abusers of the creature, &c.
Judge. What sayest thou, guilty, or not guilty?
Prisoner. Not guilty, My Lord.
The title of Thomas Hall's pamphlet, Funebria Floræ, means "the Funeral of Flora". It has the wonderful subtitle "The Downfall of May-Games: wherein Is set forth the rudeness, prophaneness, stealing, drinking, fighting, dancing, whoring, mis-rule, mis-spence of precious time, contempt of God, and godly Magistrats, Ministers and People, which oppose the Rascality and rout, in this their open prophaneness, and Heathenish Customs." (etc.)
In view of the tone of this title, banishment, the punishment meted out to Flora at Thomas Hall's imaginary court, seems relatively lenient. May games may at times have been rowdy affairs, but on the other hand the jury by which our Roman goddess is here judged is far from impartial. When Flora is dragged into court, it is because early modern theologians were convinced. or whished to convey the idea, that May games had their origin in the Roman floralia, annual festivals in honour of Flora. There is in fact no evidence that this was the case, but it served to suggest a connection between the Catholics, who had allowed such 'heathen' customs to thrive, and the pagan Romans.
It was a customary pastime to try to steal maypoles from neighbouring parishes, hence the mention of "May-pole-stealers". Though heavily biased, there is no doubt Hall's pamphlet is an valuable source for the history of May games in England. It has been ignored in most previous discussions of May games. To the prose text is appended an untitled poem which also alludes to Maid Marian.
- Not included in Dobson, R.B., ed.; Taylor, J., ed. Rymes of Robyn Hood: an Introduction to the English Outlaw (London, 1976), pp. 315-19.
- Outside scope of Sussex, Lucy, compil. 'References to Robin Hood up to 1600', in: Knight, Stephen. Robin Hood: A Complete Study of the English Outlaw (Oxford, UK; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell, 1994), pp. 262-88.
- Hall, Thomas. Funebria Floræ, the Downfall of May-Games (London, 1660); G1v-G4v; see sig. G2v. Not seen.
- Hall, Thomas. Funebria Floræ, the Downfall of May-Games (London, 1661); G1v-G4v; see sig. G2v.
- Hall, Thomas. Funebria Floræ, the Downfall of May-Games (London, 1661); G1v-G4v; see sig. G2v. Not seen.
- Griskin, Ingleberry. 'Merrie England in the olden Time', Bentley's Miscellany, vol. III (London, Jan.-Jun. 1839), pp. 98-108, see p. 100.